In December 2010, I joined the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) as an early member of its technology team. I spent the second half of my three years at the CFPB as the Deputy CIO and Acting CIO. Our team earned lots of praise for its web products (and will continue to do so, I’m sure). Now that I’ve left, I’d like to share some lessons I learned.
The CFPB is new. You might therefore discount the CFPB’s online success as a moment-in-time achievement whose lessons will not help any agency that is saddled with legacy culture, legacy systems, and the GS pay scale (the CFPB pays higher salaries than most agencies). Having worked in such agencies, I understand the belief that a fresh start creates a freeway to success. I won’t lie: the lack of legacy culture was invaluable. (As for legacy systems, we have more of those than you might think.) But instead of seeing the CFPB’s clean slate as an experiment that nobody can learn from, I see it as a test-bed for ideas that, while technically achievable for any agency, are avoided by any agency unwilling to be the first to do so. The CFPB has dipped the federal government’s foot into several new pools. I hope other agencies will soon follow, and that the lessons I share here will help them do so.
Audience note: This is meant to be a practical guide for my fellow civil servants. It includes mundane details on bureaucratic machinations that might bore outsiders who were hoping for a riff on healthcare.gov. My primary goal is to help my peers. My secondary goal is to show outside observers that any attempt to improve government technology must ultimately address practical challenges — talent and tools — and that the ongoing press attention regarding poor government IT should be shifted thusly.
Lesson 1: Do it yourself
Computing used to be ancillary to an organization’s mission. Now it’s central to it. If you serve the public and you outsource your web production to contractors, you are outsourcing your mission. Stop doing that. Build your own team of civil technology servants.
The CFPB has about 45 designers and developers on staff. They are full-time government employees, not contractors. We have some contractors, but they are far outnumbered by government staff. Building software using in-house staff has a few advantages, all of which make this lesson non-negotiable:
- An in-house team lets you own the design process. That second word — process — is the key. Design is not the act of mocking up a website or making pretty icons. Design is the act of determining what you are building and why, and using that knowledge to guide every product decision. The design process answers the key questions behind your product: Who is our audience? What problem are we solving for them? How will the audience consume our product: With a computer? Over the phone? In person?. And how will we know whether our product is successful? You may think you already know the answers to these questions and do not need to test any of your assumptions. This is a dangerous assumption, and an irresponsible one when working with tax dollars.
It’s important that civil servants answer these questions instead of asking someone else to do it for them. For one, agencies exist entirely to solve specific problems and/or help specific citizens. Answering fundamental questions about how to do this effectively should be “Job 1” for the entire organization. Furthermore, when you outsource product after product, your various services become stratified: If you have “Contractor A” build one digital product today and ask “Contractor B” to build a different digital product five years from now, your citizen-customers will have to learn a new interface, create a new account, remember another password, and provide the same personal data all over again (which will likely be stored in a facility outside your existing footprint, increasing the odds that data will be breached). Contracting support from specialized firms is fine; when your product is huge, contractors are essential. But all products should tie into an agency’s overarching digital strategy, and this has to be set and managed by the organization itself.
- When your designers and developers are part of your organization, they work seamlessly with domain experts. This deepens the technical team’s understanding of the problem. It also tightens the feedback loop between the builder and the customer. The CFPB recently launched a tool that makes financial regulations easier to navigate. A technical team can’t pull of that task without understanding how regulations work, or without constant tweaking based on frequent input from regulations attorneys. (More details on this project here.)
On the other hand, many contractor teams work off-site. This distance from the user keeps them from tailoring their solutions for the problem at hand, just like a suit bought off the rack is not tailored to its buyer. The more contact the maker has with the customer, the better the final product will fit.
- You innovate. You find efficient solutions to meaningful problems. Innovation is not a requirement; for some organizations, keeping the lights on might be sufficient. But many organizations — both government and corporate — are talking a lot about innovation these days, and they’re doing it in a way that rings hollow: They are creating “innovation strategies” and launching “innovation initiatives.”Innovation is not a product or a strategy. It is a culture of efficient problem solving. It is the unexpected, beneficial by-product of an organization that hits the sweet spot between process and lack of process. It happens when you insert curious, creative people into a environment full of interesting problems, and you give those people the freedom to pursue their own ideas. I’m not talking about letting your staff do whatever they want. I’m talking, for example, about:
- Letting a developer decide that your web site’s search engine is inadequate, and that to improve it, he can build a Mechanical Turk-like interface for teaching our search algorithm the definitions of various financial terms.
- Building your own content deployment system to quickly resolve a surprise requirement, instead of pausing a major project while a contract is modified to permit the work.
- Building a dashboard for monitoring your web hosting environment’s security posture because the service’s standard tool is inadequate.
Having your own team means that when a problem arises, you have the power to fix it quickly instead of being at the mercy of outside forces. It also means you can fix problems when they’re small instead of waiting until they are large enough to justify the months of up-front work it takes to award a contract. In the above cases, our team encountered a problem that would have negatively impacted the CFPB’s mission. Instead of spending weeks sending this problem up the chain, followed by months of procuring talent for a one-off fix (or just letting the problems fester, which is the more common outcome), we were able to fix it ourselves and be on our way. I don’t think we ever struck the perfect balance, but there is healthy tension between process and ideas.
People often tell me that contractors are perfectly capable of self-direction, executing their own ideas, and closely collaborating with on-site domain experts. Of course they are. But such behavior is illegal. (If you want to dig into the legal minutia, see Section III of this guide from the GSA. Notably, this document recommends that such restrictions be lifted.)
Lesson 2: Put immense time into hiring
I won’t lie: Hiring your own team will take a lot of time. And because this industry has high turnover rates, you have to constantly be in recruiting mode. Over the course of my three years at the CFPB, I spent more time talking to my team’s HR rep than just about anyone else in the bureau, including most of my own teammates. (Lucky for me, he was excellent. He and his successors are the unsung heroes of the CFPB’s web work.)
Here’s some background for readers with no federal experience: It takes about six months to fill a single position, and team managers lack the ultimate authority to hire the best candidates. Their decisions can be overruled by personnel officers who lack domain expertise: if your job description says the applicant must have expertise in a certain field, the personnel officer has the power to strike an applicant from the list simply by judging that the applicant’s résumé doesn’t say enough about that field. Hiring web talent is especially difficult, because while the private sector uses somewhat non-traditional metrics to grade web talent, federal teams must adhere to U.S. Government-wide guidelines for evaluating applicants. Here’s what that means in practice:
- The hiring system values quantity of formal experience over demonstrable expertise. An applicant with 15 years of experience in bankruptcy law should get preference over someone just out of law school. But apply this rule to web talent: if I need a Git expert, I’m not going to find anyone with 15 years of experience, because Git — like most other modern web technologies — is less than 10 years old. Plus, it doesn’t take years to master Git: one can become a Linus-level Git expert from their apartment in a few months. But self-taught expertise doesn’t count: it needs to be on an applicant’s résumé as something they did for an actual job. It doesn’t matter if this person is the world’s foremost expert in a technology: if they have less than a year of formal experience at it, they have lesser chances of getting an offer. This is bad news for an industry where the state of the art is so quickly usurped by new technologies, the knowledge of which is often acquired through the self-driven experimentation of hobbyists.
- The hiring system will excuse lack of experience for education. Formal, institutionally-recognized certificates of knowledge say little about one’s ability to code or build a style guide. Nevertheless, when the federal government hires a Python programmer, an applicant who boasts a Masters in CS will get a salary boost even if their grad program focused on C. Good for them, but it doesn’t help the kid who eschewed grad school so that he could focus on the Linux core.
- The hiring system insists on quantifiable metrics in the name of objectivity. This is why the federal evaluation system places a premium on years of experience: Your experience is objectively greater or less than other applicants’, but the value of that experience is open for debate. And in federal hiring, subjective evaluations are forbidden. (These rules are thanks to a past era when corrupt hiring managers gave jobs to their friends.) This approach makes it especially difficult to assess design candidates: Instead of requesting portfolios and evaluating them for good taste, we must ask “How many years of Illustrator experience do you have?” Of course, expertise in Adobe doesn’t make you a good designer any more than Microsoft Word skills make you a good writer.
In hiring web talent, we had to fit the square peg of digital culture through the federal government’s round hole. This is why we spent so much time with our HR counterparts.
Here are some specific things we did to build a great team:
- We recruited in the true sense of the word. Posting a job announcement to USAJobs.gov does not constitute a recruiting effort, yet I suspect most federal job openings are advertised nowhere else. Given how many technologists want to perform civic service but don’t know where to look, this is a great shame. To find good people, you have to hunt for them. We posted our design and development positions in places where technologists look for jobs: 37Signals, Stack Overflow, and GitHub were the obvious choices. These job boards gave us vastly more reach, and it cost us only a few hundred dollars. Twitter was also very useful (and free, of course).In addition to job boards, we also got creative. Ideas like this one came in the 11th hour before application deadlines; they took little time to implement and gave us lots of exposure.
- We built a better process for evaluating applications. First, we made sure the initial review of our applicant pool wasn’t too restrictive. Traditionally, this first cut — made by non-technical personnel staff — tends to remove many qualified applicants, especially those who expected their résumés to be reviewed by peers who speak the industry lingo. To solve this, we crafted the minimum qualifications to ensure that they were broad enough for anyone with basic web experience to qualify. This shifted a huge burden to our team: we now had to review hundreds of applications instead of the dozens that would have withstood a more restrictive set of minimum qualifications. We also gained the ability to evaluate portfolios. This was harder than it sounds. In order to evaluate portfolios, our HR partners developed a “competency model” that established objective metrics for evaluating design and code. We used this model to rate each applicant’s work on several metrics, with a minimum total score required to qualify for an interview. Each of the hundreds of design portfolios and code samples had to be reviewed independently by two different team members to ensure we were conforming to the competency model’s scoring system. This was an enormous time commitment, but it was worth it.
- We learned these techniques in the course of a single major recruiting push called the Design+Technology Fellowship, which filled 30 new positions. The recruiting campaign and applicant assessment process I’ve described above are way too much overhead for filling a single position. But with 30 positions at stake, the time commitment became a wise investment. All 30 positions used similar competency models, and all of them could be recruited through the same communities and job boards. I can’t overstate how successful this recruiting effort was. Our team of designers and developers is not great by government standards. It’s great, period.
Two more thoughts about recruiting:
- Talented people care about what they do. They want their work to have a meaningful impact. So don’t be afraid to inject passion into your pitch. The US Government affects billions of lives. If your team didn’t play some role in that, your team wouldn’t exist. So speak from the heart about what makes your team’s mission so meaningful.
- Give details on the jobs you are filling. Talented recruits want to know how they’ll be spending their time. So if you don’t provide a detailed, plain-English job description, talented people won’t apply. We were very deliberate about the language we used in the fellowship recruiting page; some current fellows cite the language on that page as the reason they applied.
In short: talk like a fellow citizen, not like this:
The incumbent is a senior level information technology specialist serving as a subject matter expert on specialized information technologies and their role within (agency)’s enterprise architecture. The incumbent typically serves as a project leader or team leader for related information technologies, providing day-to-day guidance to journey and entry-level specialists assigned to support and manage these technologies and applies advanced knowledge to effectively integrate new capabilities and functionality into the infrastructure.
— A snippet from a random USAJobs.gov post
Lesson 3: Give your team good tools
This rule may as well be part of the talent section, because if you don’t provide basic capabilities that are essential to any modern tech company, nobody will want to work for you.
Let your team use the same computers they might use at a private software firm or design agency, and let them install modern code editors and design tools onto those computers. Give them access to Chrome and Firefox and Safari so that they can check their work in something other than Internet Explorer. Allow them to create and destroy their own dev servers at whim. Let them put whatever tools and software libraries they want onto those dev servers. And for God’s sake, let them use open source software.
No web team working outside government has to request these things from their employer. But inside government, such tools and practices are rare: dev servers, multiple operating systems, and community-driven software create complexity within the enterprise (along with very real security and stability risks). Some agencies deal with complexity and risk by completely disallowing it. (This is another reason it’s easier to outsource web work to off-site contractors than do it internally.)
The CFPB team has tried to strike a better balance. They have GitHub and Jenkins and dev servers, and they have the standard design suite. This is thanks to the broader IT team, which is as passionate about their own work as our designers and developers are about theirs. Cybersecurity, systems, and support all want to set a new standard: instead of shying away from complexity at the expense of productivity, they have made it possible for their teammates to use modern tools. The team still lacks many creative, technical, and collaboration tools that are commonly used by industry. It makes life difficult for them, yet leaping into new capabilities would cause downstream problems for other teams. We are constantly trying to strike the right balance between productivity and stability; both have the public interest on their side. It is a big challenge, and the team confronts it every day.
Striking this better balance isn’t something that an established organization can simply start doing tomorrow. If your enterprise infrastructure and policies are firmly in place, then providing these tools might require a massive change in your IT team’s daily processes and procedures. This can take years. Your agency might look at the cost of providing modern design and development tools and decide that it is too great a risk for the benefit of better web sites. That is fine; I don’t profess to know what’s right for your organization.
But don’t do it halfway. If you decide it’s time to start giving your citizen-customers professional-grade products, you can’t do it without giving your staff professional-grade tools. Do not hire lots of designers and developers and then force them to work with the same tools you provide your accountants and legal staff. They will fail, and you will waste money.
For agencies that take the plunge, I have hope that the commoditization of infrastructure will make the plunge less painful. Federal IT systems must adhere to a unified set of rules, yet each agency must implement the technical controls largely on its own: much of the work that went into delivering a product to its first federal customer must be repeated by every agency that follows.
For all the hype surrounding cloud-based services, I am optimistic that Infrastructure-as-a-Service will make it far easier for the federal government to act federated. If an entire stack of infrastructure can be approved by an agency and packaged as a Puppet script or machine image, it can be delivered to another agency within hours. Its security accreditation documentation will have already been vetted by a standard-setting agency like GSA or DHS, and can be thoroughly reviewed by an agency’s cybersecurity team in far less time than it can today. This is the concept behind FedRAMP, a government program to standardize the security assessment and authorization process for cloud services. Once a product is accredited by FedRAMP, agencies will be able to acquire and deploy that product much more quickly.
In addition to the coordinating role that GSA and DHS are playing, each agency can help by codifying and sharing its infrastructure products, pre-configured to conform to FISMA standards, with other agencies. Open source infrastructure might sound too experimental for the federal government. But when I attended a government open source conference in September, I was struck by how far the conversation had come in the last few years: Government agencies used to debate whether it was even legal to use open source software. I showed up with a slide deck showing off the CFPB’s GitHub presence, expecting it to cause a stir. But the two preceding presenters — officials from GSA and the Department of Energy — did the same thing! Some agencies still snub open source code, but the tide is shifting irreversibly in its favor. Software code reuse among agencies will soon be commonplace, and infrastructure code will follow. This will have huge benefits for a sector whose use cases and security standards are endemic.
Agencies and the broader technology community can help improve federal IT infrastructure:
Agencies: If you want to dip your foot into the open source pool — be it by sharing your code with your peers, or by reusing their code — contact John Scott at the Codice Foundation. He is coordinating a multi-agency group of federal IT staff interested in furthering open source within the U.S. Government. If you have legal questions, refer to DoD’s excellent documentation on their own use of open source software, or write to David A. Wheeler, its primary author. If you want to dive in, check out GitHub’s portal for government agencies. Lots of your peers are already there.
Second, if a federal technology project goes awry, do not use the very forum that is facilitating progress as a platform for mocking them, as many developers did when they trolled the GitHub issues list for the healthcare.gov repository. The entire repository was removed days later. When the federal government engages with the technology community, it does so cautiously. Once bitten, twice shy.
Intangible: Have institutional support in the organization’s DNA
The last condition for a strong digital practice cannot be implemented through hard work; it has to preexist: To do any of these things — build your own team, make an honest recruitment effort, and provide infrastructure for that team — your entire organization has to truly care about making good digital products.
Just like a private organization, a government agency has to answer an existential question in its early days: If we want to succeed, we absolutely have to get X right. For the CFPB, technology is one of the answers. The bureau’s strategy makes it clear how indispensable technology is to each mission. At every level, from educating the public on personal finance to supervising banks, technology is seen as a driving force.
This is what people mean when they say the CFPB’s technology team has benefitted from not having legacy culture, and they’re absolutely right. Had the Bureau been founded 30 years ago (let alone 230), our social infrastructure — the bureaucratic and cultural norms like processes, roles, planning cycles, and expectations that determine how things get done — would not have valued digital products. Once that social infrastructure is set, it is tremendously difficult to change it. It was hard even for private companies to realign their strategies for the Information Age. Now imagine trying to do it in a world where CEOs are reliably replaced every four years, often with successors who have radically different viewpoints on the organization’s mission. This is the world that government agencies live in.
Federal leaders know that technology matters. Do not interpret their decision to outsource technology as evidence to the contrary. The trouble is that their agendas are overflowing with things that matter. Most agencies have a hard enough time performing their pre-web, statutorily required operations; wisely, they prioritize improving those operations before taking on new ventures. And because many such operations are required by law and/or the specialized staff performing those operations cannot be easily replaced, it is hard to trade one outdated government function for a new, high-tech one. New initiatives like digital tools have to be layered on top of the existing workload; budgets seldom shift accordingly.
There is a cost to keeping an agency digitally illiterate. But there is also a cost to reshaping a bureaucracy to do something new. Every time something new becomes a priority, a pre-existing operation, tool, team, or process — one that the organization doesn’t know how to live without — must end. That has consequences. It creates inefficiency. It confuses staff. It increases the risk that money will go missing or that data will be compromised. Why would a federal leader embrace these risks so that their successor can reap the benefits years later?
There is no magic selling point that we can offer them, but I have one suggestion: Stop promoting the web as a way to improve public-facing services. Instead, focus on its potential to optimize internal operations. Agency intranets offer more low-hanging fruit than their public counterparts. As hard as it may be to use the average federal web site, civil servants on the inside have it worse. Submitting a timecard, making travel plans, completing a training module, managing performance reviews…these are the kinds of everyday tasks that computers were supposed to make easier. But for those who are subjected to them, they are a constant headache and the source of many hours of lost productivity. In some cases, simple style sheet or layout improvements would lead to huge efficiency gains: bureaucrats would perform their administrative workload more quickly and with fewer calls to the help desk. If updating an agency for the digital era is going to cause cultural upheaval, it’s only fair that those affected by it derive some of the immediate benefit. Such benefits — a happier, more productive workforce — are more tangible to leaders than their public web site’s traffic metrics.
But how does this help federal web sites? Doesn’t focusing on bureaucrats’ internal web tools distract from the goal of helping citizens? I say it doesn’t. Instead of building a better web site here and there, our goal should be to build sustainable digital practices throughout the government, and to establish general digital awareness across the federal workforce. The best way to do that is to get a foot in the door by quickly showing the value that this work can have, and by building products that are likely to engage civil servants in the design process.
Again, this is just one idea. Cracking government culture is notoriously difficult. Please share your own ideas.
Thank you for reading. If you are a federal employee trying to build your agency’s digital practice, I hope these tips are useful. Please contact me if you need more details on anything I’ve described above. If you are a member of the broader community interested in government technology, I hope this piece informs your contributions to the ongoing debate.