The data lake model is a powerhouse for invention

In this O'Reilly Radar Podcast: Edd Dumbill on the data lake, and Rajiv Maheswaran on the science of moving dots.

In a recent blog post, Edd Dumbill, VP of strategy at Silicon Valley Data Science, wrote about the phrase “data lake.” Likening it to a dream, he described a data lake as “a place with data-centered architecture, where silos are minimized, and processing happens with little friction in a scalable, distributed environment…Data itself is no longer restrained by initial schema decisions, and can be exploited more freely by the enterprise.” He explained that he called it a “dream” because “we’ve a way to go to make the vision come true” — but noted he’s optimistic the dream can be realized.

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In this Radar Podcast epidsode, O’Reilly’s Mac Slocum sits down with Dumbill to talk about the data lake, the opportunities the model presents, and the driving forces behind the concept. Read more…

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Lessons from next-generation data wrangling tools

Drawing inspiration from recent advances in data preparation.

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One of the trends we’re following is the rise of applications that combine big data, algorithms, and efficient user interfaces. As I noted in an earlier post, our interest stems from both consumer apps as well as tools that democratize data analysis. It’s no surprise that one of the areas where “cognitive augmentation” is playing out is in data preparation and curation. Data scientists continue to spend a lot of their time on data wrangling, and the increasing number of (public and internal) data sources paves the way for tools that can increase productivity in this critical area.

At Strata + Hadoop World New York, NY, two presentations from academic spinoff start-ups — Mike Stonebraker of Tamr and Joe Hellerstein and Sean Kandel of Trifacta — focused on data preparation and curation. While data wrangling is just one component of a data science pipeline, and granted we’re still in the early days of productivity tools in data science, some of the lessons these companies have learned extend beyond data preparation.

Scalability ~ data variety and size

Not only are enterprises faced with many data stores and spreadsheets, data scientists have many more (public and internal) data sources they want to incorporate. The absence of a global data model means integrating data silos, and data sources requires tools for consolidating schemas.

Random samples are great for working through the initial phases, particularly while you’re still familiarizing yourself with a new data set. Trifacta lets users work with samples while they’re developing data wrangling “scripts” that can be used on full data sets.
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Top keynotes at Strata Conference and Strata + Hadoop World 2014

From data privacy to real-world problem solving, O’Reilly’s data editors highlight the best of the best talks from 2014.

2014 was a year of tremendous growth in the field of data, as it was as well for Strata and Strata + Hadoop World, O’Reilly’s and Cloudera’s series of data conferences. At Strata, keynotes, individual sessions, and tracks like Hardcore Data Science, Hadoop and Beyond, Data-Driven Business Day, and Design & Interfaces, among others, explore the cutting-edge aspects of how to gather, store, wrangle, analyze, visualize, and make decisions with the vast amounts of data on our hands today. Looking back on the past year of Strata, the O’Reilly data editors chose our top keynotes from Strata Santa Clara, Strata Barcelona, and Strata + Hadoop World NYC.

It was tough to winnow the list down from an exceptional set of keynotes. Visit the O’Reilly YouTube channel for a larger set of 2014 keynotes, or Safari for videos of the keynotes and many of the conference sessions.

Best of the best

  • Julia Angwin reframes the issue of data privacy as justice, due process, and human rights (and her account of trying to buy better privacy goods and services is both instructive and funny).

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The promise and problems of big data

A look at the social and moral implications of living in a deeply connected, analyzed, and informed world.

Editor’s note: this is an excerpt from our new report Data: Emerging Trends and Technologies, by Alistair Croll. You can download the free report here.

We’ll now look at both the light and the shadows of this new dawn, the social and moral implications of living in a deeply connected, analyzed, and informed world. This is both the promise and the peril of big data in an age of widespread sensors, fast networks, and distributed computing.

Solving the big problems

The planet’s systems are under strain from a burgeoning population. Scientists warn of rising tides, droughts, ocean acidity, and accelerating extinction. Medication-resistant diseases, outbreaks fueled by globalization, and myriad other semi-apocalyptic Horsemen ride across the horizon.

Can data fix these problems? Can we extend agriculture with data? Find new cures? Track the spread of disease? Understand weather and marine patterns? General Electric’s Bill Ruh says that while the company will continue to innovate in materials sciences, the place where it will see real gains is in analytics.

It’s often been said that there’s nothing new about big data. The “iron triangle” of Volume, Velocity, and Variety that Doug Laney coined in 2001 has been a constraint on all data since the first database. Basically, you could have any two you want fairly affordably. Consider:

  • A coin-sorting machine sorts a large volume of coins rapidly, but assumes a small variety of coins. It wouldn’t work well if there were hundreds of coin types.
  • A public library, organized by the Dewey Decimal System, has a wide variety of books and topics, and a large volume of those books — but stacking and retrieving the books happens at a slow velocity.

What’s new about big data is that the cost of getting all three Vs has become so cheap it’s almost not worth billing for. A Google search happens with great alacrity, combs the sum of online knowledge, and retrieves a huge variety of content types. Read more…

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Apache Spark’s journey from academia to industry

In this O'Reilly Data Show Podcast: Ion Stoica talks about the rise of Apache Spark and Apache Mesos.

Three projects from UC Berkeley’s AMPLab have been keenly adopted by industry: Apache Mesos, Apache Spark, and Tachyon. As an early user, it’s been fun to watch Spark go from an academic lab to the most active open source project in big data. In my recent travels, I’ve met Spark users from companies of all sizes and and from many industries. I’ve also spoken with companies that came of age before Spark was available or mature enough, and many are replacing homegrown tools with Spark (Full disclosure: I’m an advisor to Databricks, a start-up commercializing Apache Spark..)

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A few months ago, I spoke with UC Berkeley Professor and Databricks CEO Ion Stoica about the early days of Spark and the Berkeley Data Analytics Stack. Ion noted that by the time his students began work on Spark and Mesos, his experience at his other start-up Conviva had already informed some of the design choices:

“Actually, this story started back in 2009, and it started with a different project, Mesos. So, this was a class project in a class I taught in the spring of 2009. And that was to build a cluster management system, to be able to support multiple cluster computing frameworks like Hadoop, at that time, MPI and others. To share the same cluster as the data in the cluster. Pretty soon after that, we thought about what to build on top of Mesos, and that was Spark. Initially, we wanted to demonstrate that it was actually easier to build a new framework from scratch on top of Mesos, and of course we wanted it to be also special. So, we targeted workloads for which Hadoop at that time was not good enough. Hadoop was targeting batch computation. So, we targeted interactive queries and iterative computation, like machine learning. Read more…

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New opportunities in the maturing marketplace of big data components

The evolving marketplace is making new data applications and interactions possible.

Editor’s note: this is an excerpt from our new report Data: Emerging Trends and Technologies, by Alistair Croll. Download the free report here.

Here’s a look at some options in the evolving, maturing marketplace of big data components that are making the new applications and interactions we’ve been looking at possible.

Graph theory

First used in social network analysis, graph theory is finding more and more homes in research and business. Machine learning systems can scale up fast with tools like Parameter Server, and the TitanDB project means developers have a robust set of tools to use.

Are graphs poised to take their place alongside relational database management systems (RDBMS), object storage, and other fundamental data building blocks? What are the new applications for such tools?

Inside the black box of algorithms: whither regulation?

It’s possible for a machine to create an algorithm no human can understand. Evolutionary approaches to algorithmic optimization can result in inscrutable, yet demonstrably better, computational solutions.

If you’re a regulated bank, you need to share your algorithms with regulators. But if you’re a private trader, you’re under no such constraints. And having to explain your algorithms limits how you can generate them.

As more and more of our lives are governed by code that decides what’s best for us, replacing laws, actuarial tables, personal trainers, and personal shoppers, oversight means opening up the black box of algorithms so they can be regulated.

Years ago, Orbitz was shown to be charging web visitors who owned Apple devices more money than those visiting via other platforms, such as the PC. Only that’s not the whole story: Orbitz’s machine learning algorithms, which optimized revenue per customer, learned that the visitor’s browser was a predictor of their willingness to pay more. Read more…

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