Why my understanding of AI is different from yours.
Editor’s note: this post is part of our Intelligence Matters investigation.
Let me start with a secret: I feel self-conscious when I use the terms “AI” and “artificial intelligence.” Sometimes, I’m downright embarrassed by them.
Before I get into why, though, answer this question: what pops into your head when you hear the phrase artificial intelligence?
For the layperson, AI might still conjure HAL’s unblinking red eye, and all the misfortune that ensued when he became so tragically confused. Others jump to the replicants of Blade Runner or more recent movie robots. Those who have been around the field for some time, though, might instead remember the “old days” of AI — whether with nostalgia or a shudder — when intelligence was thought to primarily involve logical reasoning, and truly intelligent machines seemed just a summer’s work away. And for those steeped in today’s big-data-obsessed tech industry, “AI” can seem like nothing more than a high-falutin’ synonym for the machine-learning and predictive-analytics algorithms that are already hard at work optimizing and personalizing the ads we see and the offers we get — it’s the term that gets trotted out when we want to put a high sheen on things. Read more…
More visible at Health Privacy Summit than Health Datapalooza.
On the first morning of the biggest conference on data in health care–the Health Datapalooza in Washington, DC–newspapers reported a bill allowing the Department of Veterans Affairs to outsource more of its care, sending veterans to private health care providers to relieve its burdensome shortage of doctors.
There has been extensive talk about the scandals at the VA and remedies for them, including the political and financial ramifications of partial privatization. Republicans have suggested it for some time, but for the solution to be picked up by socialist Independent Senator Bernie Sanders clinches the matter. What no one has pointed out yet, however–and what makes this development relevant to the Datapalooza–is that such a reform will make the free flow of patient information between providers more crucial than ever.
Researchers and startups are building tools that enable feature discovery.
Why do data scientists spend so much time on data wrangling and data preparation? In many cases it’s because they want access to the best variables with which to build their models. These variables are known as features in machine-learning parlance. For many0 data applications, feature engineering and feature selection are just as (if not more important) than choice of algorithm:
Good features allow a simple model to beat a complex model.
(to paraphrase Alon Halevy, Peter Norvig, and Fernando Pereira)
The terminology can be a bit confusing, but to put things in context one can simplify the data science pipeline to highlight the importance of features:
Feature Engineering or the Creation of New Features
A simple example to keep in mind is text mining. One starts with raw text (documents) and extracted features could be individual words or phrases. In this setting, a feature could indicate the frequency of a specific word or phrase. Features1 are then used to classify and cluster documents, or extract topics associated with the raw text. The process usually involves the creation2 of new features (feature engineering) and identifying the most essential ones (feature selection).
Some of AI's viable approaches lie outside the organizational boundaries of Google and other large Internet companies.
Editor’s note: this post is part of an ongoing series exploring developments in artificial intelligence.
Here’s a simple recipe for solving crazy-hard problems with machine intelligence. First, collect huge amounts of training data — probably more than anyone thought sensible or even possible a decade ago. Second, massage and preprocess that data so the key relationships it contains are easily accessible (the jargon here is “feature engineering”). Finally, feed the result into ludicrously high-performance, parallelized implementations of pretty standard machine-learning methods like logistic regression, deep neural networks, and k-means clustering (don’t worry if those names don’t mean anything to you — the point is that they’re widely available in high-quality open source packages).
Google pioneered this formula, applying it to ad placement, machine translation, spam filtering, YouTube recommendations, and even the self-driving car — creating billions of dollars of value in the process. The surprising thing is that Google isn’t made of magic. Instead, mirroring Bruce Scheneier’s surprised conclusion about the NSA in the wake of the Snowden revelations, “its tools are no different from what we have in our world; it’s just better funded.” Read more…
Many more companies want to highlight how they're using Apache Spark in production.
One of the trends we’re following closely at Strata is the emergence of vertical applications. As components for creating large-scale data infrastructures enter their early stages of maturation, companies are focusing on solving data problems in specific industries rather than building tools from scratch. Virtually all of these components are open source and have contributors across many companies. Organizations are also sharing best practices for building big data applications, through blog posts, white papers, and presentations at conferences like Strata.
These trends are particularly apparent in a set of technologies that originated from UC Berkeley’s AMPLab: the number of companies that are using (or plan to use) Spark in production1 has exploded over the last year. The surge in popularity of the Apache Spark ecosystem stems from the maturation of its individual open source components and the growing community of users. The tight integration of high-performance tools that address different problems and workloads, coupled with a simple programming interface (in Python, Java, Scala), make Spark one of the most popular projects in big data. The charts below show the amount of active development in Spark:
For the second year in a row, I’ve had the privilege of serving on the program committee for the Spark Summit. I’d like to highlight a few areas where Apache Spark is making inroads. I’ll focus on proposals2 from companies building applications on top of Spark.
Agile methodology brings flexibility to the EDW and offers ways to integrate open-source technologies with existing systems.
Data analysis, like other pursuits, is a balancing act. The rise of big data ratchets up the pressure on the traditional enterprise data warehouse (EDW) and associated software tools to handle rapidly evolving sets of new demands posed by the business. Companies want their EDW systems to be more flexible and more user friendly — without sacrificing processing speeds, data integrity, or overall reliability.
“The more data you give the business, the more questions they will ask,” says José Carlos Eiras, who has served as CIO at Kraft Foods, Philip Morris, General Motors, and DHL. “When you have big data, you have a lot of different questions, and suddenly you need an enterprise data warehouse that is very flexible.”
EDWs are remarkably powerful, but it takes considerable expertise and creativity to modify them on the fly. Adding new capabilities to the EDW generally requires significant investments of time and money. You can develop your own tools internally or purchase them from a vendor, but either way, it’s a hard slog. Read more…