# FEATURED STORY

## 5 reasons why Python is a popular teaching language

### Python's simplicity makes it accessible to learners and teachers alike.

Download a free copy of Python in Education. Editor’s note: this is an excerpt from Python in Education, a free report written by Nicholas Tollervey.

I am going to answer a very simple question: which features of the Python language itself make it appropriate for education? This will involve learning a little Python and reading some code. But don’t worry if you’re not a coder! This chapter will hopefully open your eyes to how easy it is to learn Python (and thus, why it is such a popular choice as a teaching language).

When I write a to-do list on a piece of paper, it looks something like this:

Shopping
Fix broken gutter
Mow the lawn  

This is an obvious list of items. If I wanted to break down my to-do list a bit further, I might write something like this:

Shopping:
Eggs
Bacon
Tomatoes
Fix broken gutter:
Find hammer and nails
Mow the lawn:
Check lawn around pond for frogs
Check mower fuel level 

Intuitively, we understand that the main tasks are broken down into sub-tasks that are indented underneath the main task to which they relate. This makes it easy to see, at a glance, how the tasks relate to each other.

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## Open source won, so what’s next?

### What to expect at OSCON 2015.

Twenty years ago, open source was a cause. Ten years ago, it was the underdog. Today, it sits upon the Iron Throne ruling all it surveys. Software engineers now use open source frameworks, languages, and tools in almost all projects.

When I was putting together the program for OSCON with the other program chairs, it occurred to me that by covering “just” open source, we weren’t really leaving out all that much of the software landscape. It seems open source has indeed won, but let’s not gloat; let’s make things even better. Open source has made many great changes to software possible, but the spirit of the founding community goes well beyond code. Read more…

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## Translating your Objective-C project to Swift

### A step-by-step approach to using Swift with Objective-C.

If you’ve got an existing app written in Objective-C, migrating it into Swift is an excellent exercise for learning Swift, experimenting with Swift, and deciding whether to adopt Swift on a full-time basis. I’ve performed this migration with several real apps, so here are some tips culled from my actual experience.

## Hybrid targets

You’re surely not going to translate all your code into Swift at once; you’re much more likely to translate one class at a time. As soon as you add a Swift file to your Objective-C app target, you’ve got a hybrid target: some classes are written in Swift, while other other classes are written in Objective-C. Thus, declarations in each language will need to be visible to the other language. Before you start, it’s a good idea to understand how this visibility works.

Recall that an Objective-C class declaration is conventionally spread over two files: a header file (.h) containing the @interface section, and a code file (.m) containing the @implementation section. If a .m file needs to know about a class, it imports the corresponding .h file.

Visibility of Swift and Objective-C to one another depends upon this convention: it works through .h files. There are two directions of visibility, and they must be considered separately.

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## 4 reasons why microservices resonate

### Microservices optimize evolutionary change at a granular level.

We just finished the first O’Reilly Software Architecture Conference and the overwhelming most popular topic was microservices. Why all the hype about an architectural style?

Microservices are the first post-DevOps revolution architecture.

The DevOps revolution highlighted how much inadvertent friction an outdated operations mindset can cause, starting the move towards automating away manual tasks. By automating chores like machine provisioning and deployments, it suddenly became cheap to make changes that used to be expensive. Some architects properly viewed this new capability as a super power, and built architectures that fully embraced the operational aspects of their design. The Microservice architectural style prioritizes operational concerns as one of the key aspects of the architecture.

Microservice architectures borrow a design aesthetic from Domain Driven Design called the Bounded Context. A bounded context encapsulates all internal details of that domain and has explicit integration points with other bounded contexts. Microservice architectures reify the logical DDD bounded context into physical architecture. For example, it is common in microservice architectures for services that must persist data to own their database: members of the service team handle provisioning, backups, schema, migration, etc. In other words, in microservice architectures, the bounded context is also a physical context. But that also means that this service implementation isn’t coupled to any other team’s implementation, clearing the path for independent evolution. I recently published some writing about the recent realization that architecture is abstract until operationalized. In other words, until you have deployed an architecture and upgraded parts of it, you don’t fully understand it.

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## How the DevOps revolution informs software architecture

### The O'Reilly Radar Podcast: Neal Ford on the changing role of software architects and the rise of microservices.

In this episode of the Radar Podcast, O’Reilly’s Mac Slocum sits down with Neal Ford, a software architect and meme wrangler at ThoughtWorks, to talk about the changing role of software architects. They met up at our recent Software Architecture Conference in Boston — if you missed the event, you can sign up to be notified when the Complete Video Compilation of all sessions and talks is available.

Slocum started the conversation with the basics: what, exactly, does a software architect do. Ford noted that there’s not a straightforward answer, but that the role really is a “pastiche” of development, soft skills and negotiation, and solving business domain problems. He acknowledged that the role historically has been negatively perceived as a non-coding, post-useful, ivory tower deep thinker, but noted that has been changing over the past five to 10 years as the role has evolved into real-world problem solving, as opposed to operating in abstractions:

“One of the problems in software, I think, is that you build everything on towers of abstractions, and so it’s very easy to get to the point where all you’re doing is playing with abstractions, and you don’t reify that back to the real world, and I think that’s the danger of this kind of ivory-tower architect. When you start looking at things like continuous delivery and continuous deployment, you have to take those operational concerns into account, and I think that is making the role of architect a lot more relevant now, because they are becoming much more involved in the entire software development ecosystem, not just the front edge of it.”

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## Signals from the O’Reilly Software Architecture Conference 2015

### From careers to culture to code, here are key insights from the O'Reilly Software Architecture Conference 2015.

Experts from across the software architecture world came together in Boston for the O’Reilly Software Architecture Conference 2015. Below we’ve assembled notable keynotes, interviews, and insights from the event.

## Software architects: post-“post-useful”

The old notion of a software architect being a non-coding, post-useful deep thinker is giving way to something far more interesting, says Neal Ford, software architect and meme wrangler at ThoughtWorks. “Architecture has become much more interesting now because it’s become more encompassing … it’s trying to solve real problems rather than play with abstractions.”