# "MariaDB" entries

## Dynamic columns in MariaDB

### Add columns to a table on the fly without altering its schema.

MariaDB and similar SQL database systems allow for a variety of data types that may be used for storing data in columns within tables. When creating or altering a table’s schema, it’s good to know what to expect, to know what kind of data will be stored in each column. If you know that a column will contain numbers, use a numeric data type like INT, not VARCHAR. It’s best to use the appropriate data type for a column. Generally, you’ll have better control of the data and possibly better performance.

But sometimes you can’t predict what type of data might be entered into a column. For such a situation, you might use VARCHAR set to 255 characters wide, or maybe TEXT if plenty of data might be entered. This is a very cool and fairly new alternative: you could create a table in which you would add columns on the fly, but without altering the table’s schema. That may sound absurd, but it’s possible to do this in MariaDB with dynamic columns.

Dynamic columns are basically columns within a column. If you know programming well, they’re like a hash within an array. That may sound confusing, but it will make more sense when you see it in action. To illustrate this, I’ll pull some ideas from my new book, Learning MySQL and MariaDB (O’Reilly 2015). All of the examples in my book and this article are based on a database for bird-watchers.