Why clouds and web services will continue to take over computing
Let’s put together a pitch for cloud and web service
providers. We have two hurdles to leap: one persuading them how
they’ll benefit by releasing the source code to their software,
and one addressing their fear of releasing the source code.
I’ll handle both tasks in this section, which will then give us
the foundation to look at a world of free clouds and web services.
Cloud and web service providers already love free software
Reasons for developing software as open source have been told and
retold many times; popular treatments include Eric S. Raymond’s
essays in the collection
The Cathedral and the Bazaar (which O’Reilly puts out
and Yochai Benkler’s Wealth of Networks
(available online as a
as well as the basis for a
and published by Yale University Press). But cloud and web service
companies don’t have to be sold on free software–they use it all the
The cornucopia of tools and libraries produced by projects such as the
open source Ruby on Rails make it the first stop on many
services’ search for software. Lots of them still code pages in
other open source tools and languages such as PHP and jQuery. Cloud
providers universally base their offerings on Linux, and many use open
source tools to create their customers’ virtual systems.
(Amazon.com currently bases its cloud offerings on Xen, and
KVM, heavily backed
by Red Hat, is also a contender.) The best monitoring tools are also
free software. In general, free software is sweeping through the
cloud. (See also
Open Source Projects for Cloud on Rise, According to Black Duck Software Analysis).
So cloud and web service providers live the benefits of free software
every day. They know the value of communities who collaborate to
improve and add new layers to software. They groove on the convenience
of loading as much software they want on any systems without
struggling with a license server. They take advantage of frequent
releases with sparkling new features. And they know that there are
thousands of programmers out in the field familiar with the software,
so hiring is easier.
And they give back to open source communities too: they contribute
money, developer time, and valuable information about performance
issues and other real-life data about the operation of the software.
But what if we ask them to open their own code? We can suggest that
they can have better software by letting their own clients–the
best experts in how their software is used–try it out and look
over the source for problems. Web service developers also realize that
mash-ups and extensions are crucial in bringing them more traffic, so
one can argue that opening their source code will make it easier for
third-party developers to understand it and write to it.
Web and cloud services are always trying to hire top-notch programmers
too, and it’s a well-established phenomenon that releasing the
source code to a popular product produces a cadre of experts out in
the field. Many volunteers submit bug fixes and enhancements in order
to prove their fitness for employment–and the vendors can pick
up the best coders.
These arguments might not suffice to assail the ramparts of vendors’
resistance. We really need to present a vision of open cloud computing
and persuade vendors that their clients will be happier with services
based on free software. But first we can dismantle some of the fear
around making source code open.
No reason to fear opening the source code
Some cloud and web providers, even though they make heavy use of free
software internally, may never have considered releasing their own
code because they saw no advantages to it (there are certainly
administrative and maintenance tasks associated with opening source
code). Others are embarrassed about the poor structure and coding
style of their fast-changing source code.
Popular methodologies for creating Web software can also raise a
barrier to change. Companies have chosen over the past decade to
feature small, tight-knit teams who communicate with each other and
stakeholders informally and issue frequent software releases to try
out in the field and then refine. Companies find this process more
“agile” than the distributed, open-source practice of putting
everything in writing online, drawing in as broad a range of
contributors as possible, and encouraging experiments on the side. The
agile process can produce impressive results quickly, but it places an
enormous burden on a small group of people to understand what clients
want and massage it into a working product.
We can’t move cloud and SaaS sites to free software, in any case, till
we address the fundamental fear some of these sites share with
traditional proprietary software developers: that someone will take
their code, improve it, and launch a competing service. Let’s turn to
If a service releases its code under the GNU Affero General Public
License, as mentioned in the
anyone who improves it and runs a web site with the improved code is
legally required to release their improvements. So we can chip away at
the resistance with several arguments.
First, web services win over visitors through traits that are
unrelated to the code they run. Traits that win repeat visits include:
- Staying up (sounds so simple, but needs saying)
The network effects that come from people inviting their friends or
going where the action is–effects that give the innovative
vendor a first-mover advantage
A site’s appearance and visual guides to navigation, which
includes aspects that can be trademarked
Well-designed APIs that facilitate the third-party applications
So the source code to SaaS software isn’t as precious a secret
as vendors might think. Anyway, software is more and more a commodity
frameworks, MVC platforms, and even whole new programming languages
are being developed for the vendors’ enjoyment. Scripting
languages, powerful libraries, and other advances speed up the pace of
development. Anyone who likes the look of a web service and wants to
create a competitor can spin it up in record time for low cost.
Maybe we’ve softened up the vendors some. Now, on to the
pinnacle of cloud computing–and the high point on which this
article will end–a vision of the benefits a free cloud could
offer to vendors, customers, and developers alike.
Reaching the pinnacle: truly open web services and clouds.